Koster (øgruppe)

Koster er en øgruppe i Skagerak lige ud for Strömstad på Sveriges vestkyst i Bohuslän. Øgruppen består af en række øer og skær, herunder Nordkoster og Sydkoster, som er adskilt af Kostersundet, Ramsö og det tidligere bemandede fyrsted Ursholmen. Fra Strömstad sejler der færger til øerne.

Øerne har en helårsbefolkning på cirka 300 personer, hvoraf cirka 240 bor på Sydkoster og cirka 60 på Nordkoster best way to tenderize beef. Om sommeren øges antallet af beboere til det tidobbelte. Koster er de vestligste øer med helårsbefolkning i Sverige. Sydkoster har et areal på 8 km² og Nordkoster 4 km². Sydøen er grøn og løvrig, mens nordøen er gold og klippefyldt.

Frem til 1960’erne var fiskeri, i særdeleshed rejer glass water bottles india, hovederhvervet. I de seneste tyve år er mange tidligere rigt forekommende fiskearter helt næsten forsvundet, blandt andre torsk og fladfisk. Makrel findes dog stadig, og optræder i stimer, når de jager brisling tenderize meat without mallet.

I de senere år er antallet af fritidhuse og turister øget kraftigt, hvilket har ført til krav om øget hensyn til miljøet. Da Koster ligger tæt på Norge, er de også blevet et populært fritidsområde for befolkningen ved Oslofjorden.

Den 9. september 2009 planlægges indvielsen af Kosterhavets nationalpark, Sveriges første maritime nationalpark.

Koster er også kendt for bådtypen koster, der er en almuebåd med stævn i begge ender.

I 1398 skrev man Nordkosters navn som nordr Kostom. Det antages at navnet kommer af det oldnordiske kostir, som kan oversættes til spisestederne.

Koordinater:

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Jessie Lewars

Jessie Lewars also known as Mrs. James Thomson, was the youngest daughter of John Lewars, a supervisor of excise. Following the death of her 69-year-old father in 1789, Jessie was only 11 years old, when she and her brother John moved to a house in Millhole Brae (now Burns Street) that lay opposite that of Robert Burns in Dumfries. Jessie was a close Burns family friend and when nearly at the age of eighteen helped the family by nursing Robert in the days leading up to his death and doing the domestic chores.

Jessie had a brother and also an older sister, Mary, who married William Hyslop, a Dumfries builder. As teasingly predicted by Robert Burns, Jessie married James Thomson, a lawyer or solicitor, in Dumfries on 3 June 1799. The couple had five sons and two daughters. The sons were James (1800–1820); John (1802–1834), who worked with his father; William (1805–1858), who was a captain in the merchant service, and died at the Cape of Good Hope; Thomas (1810–1859); and Alexander (1814–1859.

The elder daughter, Mary (1807–1843), married George Montgomery in 1840, a Dumfries merchant. They had a son, George, and a daughter, Jessie Lewars Montgomery. Jessie, younger daughter of James Thomson and Jessie Lewars, was born on 16 June 1816 and died unmarried in September 1877.

Jessie lived in Dumfries at Maxwelltown, for the remainder of her life, dying at the age of 77 on 26 May 1855; her husband, James Thomson, having died on 5 May 1849, aged 75. Jessie and her husband were buried in a grave situated opposite to the Robert Burn’s mausoleum in Saint Michael’s churchyard, Dumfries.

John Lewars, Jessie’s brother, was a colleague of Robert Burns in Dunfriesshire until his death in 1796 and gave official instruction to the Poet on his joining the service.

Jessie not only nursed Robert Burns during his final illness, but also looked after his young family of four boys until his wife, Jean, had recovered from the birth of her last child, Maxwell Burns. Young Robert actually remained living with her for nearly a year. Jessie played and sang to Robert whilst he lay in his sickbed steak tenderiser, for Burns was rarely able to leave his room from April 1796, until his death in July of that year. She is said to have had a fine singing voice that Burns compared to a Linnet (Carduelis cannabina). He became very fond of Jessie and composed his very last song for her, namely “O wert thou in the cauld blast.” after hearing Jessie sing a popular song cheap pink soccer socks, known as “The Robin cam’ to the Wren’s Nest.”; Felix Mendelssohn also set this to his own haunting music. He also addressed to Jessie the song “Altho’ thou maun never be mine.”

When she was briefly ill or indisposed Robert offered to write an epitaph to her on a crystal goblet, saying in jest “In case of the worst, Jessy, let me provide you with an epithaph”:-

He also wrote a rhymed toast to her on another crystal goblet containing wine and water using a diamond pen and requested that she regard it as a keepsake for life:-

Robert wrote the following tribute to Jessie on the back of a menagerie handbill that she kept for the rest of her life: –

Jessie Lewars great granddaughter, Jessie Lewars Dove, inherited the handbill and it came back into the public sphere in Cambridge, around 1940. It was included as a reproduction in the 1940 Burns Chronicle.

Burns also wrote to James Johnson in Edinburgh and requested a copy of “The Scots Musical Museum” for Jessie, saying “My wife has a very particular friend, a young lady who sings well, to whom she wishes to present the Scots Musical Museum, If you have a spare copy, will you be so obliging as to send it by the very first fly, as I am anxious to have it soon.” Johnson sent three make your own football t shirt, her copy being inscribed by the poet with a heartfelt expression of his appreciation for her kindness to him: –

A thin quarto volume by Dr. Wolcott was given by Burns to Jessie, entitled Pindarinia, by Peter Pindar, 1794,” in- scribed “Un petit gage de Vamitie. R. Burns best way to tenderize a steak.” (a small token from a friend)

After Burns’s death it was John Lewars who wrote on behalf of Jean Armour Burns to several of Robert’s close and intimate friends, such as James Burness in Montrose. Jessie’s friendship with Jean Armour Burns continued and she remained a support to the family, caring for the four small brothers.

Jessie had her portrait painted by John Irvine. At a festival held in honour of the poet’s sons in 1844, Jessie was given pride of place next to Robert Burns’ relatives.

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Kennbuchstaben von Halbleiterbauelementen

Kennbuchstaben von Halbleiterbauelementen werden zur schnellen Identifikation von typischen elektrischen Bauelementen eingesetzt, die auf Halbleitern basieren.

Die Pro-Electron-Norm, heute durch die EECA (European Electronic Component Manufacturers Association waterproof bag for water park, dt. »Europäische Vereinigung der Hersteller elektronischer Bauelemente«) geführt, sieht dazu folgendes Schema vor:

Anschließend kann ein dritter Buchstabe vorhanden sein. Hiermit werden meist Typen gekennzeichnet, die besonderen industriellen oder militärischen Anforderungen genügen. Häufig verwendet werden die Buchstaben R, S, T, V, W, X, Y oder Z all stainless steel water bottle, aber auch andere können vorkommen. Diese Zeichen bezeichnen keine speziellen Eigenschaften.

Ist ein Halbleiter mit 3 Buchstaben gekennzeichnet, dann ist die folgende Ziffernkombination in der Regel zwei- oder dreistellig, andernfalls ist die folgende laufende Nummer drei- oder, selten, vierstellig. Daran können ggf. noch weitere Buchstaben- oder Ziffernkombinationen angehängt sein, die beispielsweise verschiedene Spannungsfestigkeits- oder Verstärkungswerte angeben.

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Ödön Zombori

Ödön Zombori (* 16. September 1906 in Szenta; † 29. November 1989 in Budapest) war ein ungarischer Ringer.

Ödön Zombori begann als Jugendlicher in Budapest mit dem Ringen. Er entstammte einer Familie, in der sich mehrere Mitglieder dem Ringen widmeten. So war auch sein Bruder Gyula ein hervorragender Ringer und Vizeeuropameister 1930 im griechisch-römischen Stil im Weltergewicht. Ödön gehörte dem Magyar Atlétikai Club (MAC) Budapest an.

Auf der internationalen Ringermatte erschien Ödön erstmals bei den Olympischen Spielen 1928 in Amsterdam. Er kam im Bantamgewicht, griechisch-römischer Stil, zu drei Punktsiegen, schied dann aber nach einer Niederlage gegen Giovanni Gozzi aus Italien aus und belegte einen guten 5. Platz. Bei der Europameisterschaft 1929 in Dortmund kam er im griechisch-römischen Stil zu zwei Punktsiegen und schied wieder schon nach einer Niederlage, diesmal gegen Svend Martinsen aus Norwegen, wegen des Erreichens von 5 Fehlerpunkten aus.

1930 startete er bei der Europameisterschaft in Stockholm im griechisch-römischen Stil im Federgewicht und gewann seine erste Medaille. Nach zwei Siegen scheiterte er diesmal an dem berühmten Kustaa Pihlajamäki aus Finnland. Bei der Europameisterschaft 1931 in Prag erreichte Ödön im Federgewicht im griechisch-römischen Stil nur den undankbaren 4.Platz. Er nahm aber im selben Jahr erstmals bei der Europameisterschaft im heimischen Budapest im freien Stil teil und gewann dort in überlegenem Stil den Europameistertitel.

Mit großen Hoffnungen fuhr Ödön deshalb zu den Olympischen Spielen 1932 nach Los Angeles. Er enttäuschte zwar im griechisch-römischen Stil, als er nach zwei Niederlagen ausscheiden musste, gewann aber im freien Stil im Bantamgewicht die Silbermedaille. Im Finale unterlag er dabei dem überragenden Robert E. Pearce aus den USA. Bei der Europameisterschaft 1933 in Helsinki gewann Ödön endlich auch einen Titel im griechisch-römischen Stil. Er siegte im Bantamgewicht trotz einer Punktniederlage gegen Herman Tuvesson aus Schweden. Der zweite Titelgewinn im freien Stil des gleichen Jahres in Paris im Bantamgewicht machte das Jahr 1933 zu einem der erfolgreichsten Jahre seiner Laufbahn.

1934 wurde Ödön in Rom Vizeeuropameister im Bantamgewicht, griechisch-römischer Stil, nach einer erneuten Niederlage gegen Hermann Tuvesson. 1935 schied er bei der Europameisterschaft im griechisch-römischen Stil in Kopenhagen im Federgewicht nach Niederlagen in den beiden ersten Runden ohne Medaillengewinn aus. Für die Europameisterschaft im freien Stil konnte er sich gar nicht qualifizieren, weil er bei der ungarischen Meisterschaft gegen Ferenc Tóth im Federgewicht verloren hatte.

Nach dem schlechten Abschneiden bei der Europameisterschaft 1935 wurde von ihm bei den Olympischen Spielen 1936 in Berlin, für die er noch einmal in das Bantamgewicht abtrainiert hatte, nicht mehr allzu viel erwartet, zumal er schon 32 Jahre alt war. Ödön belehrte seine Kritiker aber eines besseren, denn er wurde mit fünf Siegen, davon vier Schultersiegen und einer Niederlage gegen Hermann Tuvesson, gegen den er einfach nicht gewinnen konnte, dank seines Sieges über den US-Amerikaner Ross Flood, der wiederum Tuvesson besiegt hatte und dank seiner vier Schultersiege, Olympiasieger.

Nach diesen Olympischen Spielen beendete Ödön Zombori seine Ringerlaufbahn. Er überstand den Krieg in Budapest und wanderte 1948 kurz vor der Machtergreifung der Kommunisten in Ungarn in die USA aus, wo er noch über vierzig Jahre lang lebte und in Glendale begraben ist.

Die Ergebnisse der internationalen Meisterschaften, an denen Ödön Zombori teilnahm, sind aus dem folgenden Abschnitt zu ersehen.

(OS = Olympische Spiele, EM = Europameisterschaft, GR = griechisch-römischer Stil, F = Freistil, Ba = Bantamgewicht, Fe = Federgewicht, damals bis 56 kg bzw. 61 kg Körpergewicht)

Die ungarische Meisterschaft gewann Ödön Zombori 1928 und 1931 im Bantamgewicht und 1935 im Federgewicht, jeweils im griechisch-römischen Stil.

1904: Isidor Niflot | 1908: George Mehnert | 1924: Kustaa Pihlajamäki | 1928: Kaarlo Mäkinen | 1932: Robert E. Pearce | 1936: Ödön Zombori | 1948: Nasuh Akar | 1952: Shohachi Ishii | 1956: Mustafa Dağıstanlı | 1960: Terrence McCann | 1964: Yōjirō Uetake | 1968: Yōjirō Uetake | 1972: Hideaki Yanagida | 1976: Wladimir Jumin | 1980: Sergei Beloglasow | 1984: Hideaki Tomiyama | 1988: Sergei Beloglasow&nbsp football wholesale jerseys;| 1992: Alejandro Puerto | 1996:&nbsp metal thermos flask;Kendall Cross | 2000: Alireza Dabir | 2004: Mawlet Batirow | 2008: Henry Cejudo | 2012: Dschamal Otarsultanow | 2016: Wladimer Chintschegaschwili

Liste der Olympiasieger im Ringen

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Lorédan Larchey

Lorédan Larchey (* 26 camo football uniforms. Januar 1831 in Metz; † 12. April 1902 in Menton) war ein französischer Bibliothekar, Lexikograf und Romanist.

Larchey studierte Jura und an der École des Chartes, machte aber keinen Abschluss. Seine Bibliothekarslaufbahn führte ihn von 1852 bis 1886 durch die Pariser Bibliotheken Mazarine, Sainte-Geneviève und Arsenal. Er gründete die Zeitschriften La Revue anecdotique des lettres et des arts (1855 bis 1861) und La Petite Revue (1863) und war Mitarbeiter zahlreicher anderer Blätter.

Sehr erfolgreich war sein Argot-Wörterbuch Les Excentricités de la langue française en 1860 (Paris 1860 in der Revue anecdotique 8 und 9), das in späteren Auflagen u. d. T. Les Excentricités du langage français (2. und 3 meat tenderizer seasoning recipe. Aufl., Paris 1861), Les Excentricités du langage (4. Aufl glass bottle with rubber cover., 1862, 5. Aufl., 1865), Dictionnaire historique, étymologique et anecdotique de l’argot parisien (6. Aufl., Paris 1872), sowie Dictionnaire historique d’argot (7. bis 10. Aufl., Paris 1878, 1880, 1881, 1888) erschien. 1883 und 1889 erschienen getrennt Supplemente, die den späteren Ausgaben hinzugefügt wurden. Die 6. Auflage wurde nachgedruckt unter dem gleichen Titel (Paris 1985) trusox soccer socks, sowie u. d. T. Dictionnaire de l’argot parisien. Vorwort von Claude Duneton (Paris 1996). Die 9. Auflage 1881 wurde nachgedruckt u. d. T. Dictionnaire historique d’argot et des excentricités du langage (Paris 1982).

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Me’ona

Me’ona (hebr. מעונה) – moszaw położony w Samorządzie Regionu Ma’ale Josef, w Dystrykcie Północnym, w Izraelu.

Moszaw Me’ona jest położony na wysokości 465 metrów n.p.m. w zachodniej części Górnej Galilei. Leży na północno-wschodnich zboczach wzgórza Har Me’ona (615 m n.p.m.). W jego otoczeniu są jeszcze wzgórza Har Eger (506 m n.p.m.) i Tel Kada (507 m n.p.m.) best cheap socks. Okoliczny teren opada w kierunku zachodnim do wadi strumienia Nachal Gaton, który spływa do wzgórz Zachodniej Galilei, i dalej na równinę przybrzeżną Izraela. Okoliczne wzgórza są zalesione. W otoczeniu moszawu Me’ona znajdują się miasto Ma’alot-Tarszicha, miejscowości Kfar Vradim, Januch-Dżat i Mi’ilja, kibuc Jechi’am, moszawy En Ja’akow i Manot, oraz wioska komunalna Newe Ziw. Na północnym wschodzie jest położona strefa przemysłowa Ma’alot.

Me’ona jest położony w Samorządzie Regionu Ma’ale Josef, w Poddystrykcie Akka, w Dystrykcie Północnym Izraela.

Stałymi mieszkańcami moszawu są wyłącznie Żydzi. Tutejsza populacja jest świecka:

Źródło danych: .

Tutejsze ziemie należały do arabskiej wioski Tarszicha. W wyniku I wojny światowej cała Palestyna przeszła pod panowanie Brytyjczyków, którzy utworzyli Brytyjski Mandat Palestyny. W wyniku arabskiego powstania w Palestynie (1936-1939) Brytyjczycy wznieśli przy wiosce fort Tegart Tarshiha (obecnie posterunek policji). Przyjęta 29 listopada 1947 roku Rezolucja Zgromadzenia Ogólnego ONZ nr 181 przyznała ten obszar państwu arabskiemu. Podczas wojny domowej w Mandacie Palestyny w 1948 roku w rejonie wioski stacjonowały siły Arabskiej Armii Wyzwoleńczej, które paraliżowały żydowską komunikację w całej Galilei. Podczas I wojny izraelsko-arabskiej Izraelczycy podjęli w dniu 18 lipca 1948 roku nieudaną próbę zajęcia wioski (w trakcie operacji „Dekel”). Dopiero podczas operacji „Hiram” 29 października zdobyli wioskę. Wysiedlono wówczas jej mieszkańców, a wiele domów wyburzono. Współczesny moszaw został założony w 1949 roku przez imigrantów z Afryki Północnej i Rumunii. Początkowo mieszkali oni w wyludnionej arabskiej wiosce Tarszicha, a następnie kawałek dalej rozpoczęli budowę nowych domów. Na początku XXI wieku moszaw został rozbudowany. Istnieją plany dalszej jego rozbudowy.

Moszaw utrzymuje przedszkole i szkołę podstawową. Starsze dzieci są dowożone do szkoły średniej przy kibucu Kabri.

W moszawie znajduje się ośrodek kultury z biblioteką. Z obiektów sportowych jest boisko do piłki nożnej.

W moszawie jest przychodnia zdrowia, sklep wielobranżowy oraz warsztat mechaniczny.

Okoliczne tereny Górnej Galilei są atrakcyjnym obszarem do turystyki pieszej. W pobliżu jest położony rezerwat przyrody strumienia Keziw i Park Narodowy Montfort. W moszawie istnieje możliwość wynajęcia noclegu.

Gospodarka moszawu opiera się na drobnym rolnictwie – jest tu ferma drobiu, pasieka oraz pieczarkarnia. Większość mieszkańców dojeżdża do pracy w pobliskich strefach przemysłowych football game socks.

Z moszawu wyjeżdża się na zachód drogą nr 8833, którą jadąc na północ dojeżdża się do drogi nr 89 przy mieście Ma’alot-Tarszicha. Droga nr 8833 prowadzi obrzeżami dzielnicy Tarszicha, a następnie wykręca na zachód do moszawu En Ja’akow.

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Tartarus thampannensis

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations du projet Arachnologie.

Nom binominal

Tartarus thampannensis
Gray, 1992

Tartarus thampannensis est une espèce d’araignées aranéomorphes de la famille des Stiphidiidae.

Cette espèce est endémique du Goldfields-Esperance en Australie-Occidentale. Elle se rencontre dans la grotte Thampanna Cave sur le plateau Hampton dans la plaine de Nullarbor.

Cette araignée est anophthalme et décolorée par adaptation à la vie troglobie. La carapace de la femelle juvénile holotype mesure 4,77 mm de long sur 3,35 mm de large, son abdomen 7,8 mm de long sur 3,9 mm de large.

Son nom d’espèce, composé de thampann[a] et du suffixe latin -ensis grey soccer socks, « qui vit dans reusable water bottles, qui habite », lui a été donné en référence au lieu de sa découverte, la Thampanna Cave.

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Megalosauridae

See text.

Torvosauridae Jensen, 1985
Eustreptospondylidae Paul, 1988
Streptospondylidae Kurzanov, 1989

Megalosauridae is a monophyletic family of carnivorous theropod dinosaurs. It comes from the order Saurischia and the clade Tetanurae, and is closely related to the families Allosauridae and Spinosauridae. Some members of this family include Megalosaurus, Torvosaurus, Eustreptospondylus, and Streptospondylus. Appearing in the Middle Jurassic, megalosaurids are a relatively primitive group characterized by two unambiguous synapomorphies: a humeral deltopectoral crest that terminates about halfway along the humeral shaft and the absence of a fibular anterolateral tubercle. Megalosauridae contains two main subfamilies- Megalosaurinae, defined as all megalosaurids closer to Megalosaurus than Afrovenator, and Afrovenatorinae, defined as megalosaurids closer to Afrovenator than Megalosaurus.

The defining megalosaurid is Megalosaurus bucklandii, first named and described in 1824 by William Buckland after multiple finds in Stonesfield, Oxfordshire, UK. Megalosaurus was the first formally described dinosaur and was the basis for the establishment of the clade Dinosauria. It is also one of the largest known Middle Jurassic carnivorous dinosaurs, with the best-preserved femur at 805 mm and a proposed body mass of around 943 kg. Megalosauridae is recognized as a mainly European group of dinosaurs, based on fossils found in France and the UK. However, recent discoveries in Niger have led some to consider the range of the family. Megalosaurids appeared right before the split of the supercontinent Pangaea into Gondwana and Laurasia. These large theropods therefore may have dominated both halves of the world during the Jurassic.

The family Megalosauridae was first defined by Thomas Huxley in 1869, yet it has been contested throughout history due to its role as a ‘waste-basket’ for many partially described dinosaurs or unidentified remains. In the early years of paleontology, most large theropods were grouped together and up to 48 species were included in the clade Megalosauria, the basal clade of Megalosauridae. Over time, most of these taxa were placed in other clades and the parameters of Megalosauridae were narrowed significantly. However, some controversy remains over whether Megalosauridae should be considered its own distinct group, and dinosaurs in this family remain some of the most problematic taxa in all Dinosauria. Some paleontologists, such as Paul Sereno in 2005, have disregarded the group due to its shaky foundation and lack of clarified phylogeny. However, recent research by Carrano, Benson, and Sampson has systematically analyzed all basal tetanurans and determined that Megalosauridae should exist as its own family.

Like other tetanurans, megalosaurids are carnivorous theropods characterized by large size and bipedalism. Specifically, megalosaurids exhibit especially giant size, with some members of the family weighing more than one tonne. Over time, there is evidence of size increase within the family. Basal megalosaurids from the Early Jurassic had smaller body size than those appearing in the late Middle Jurassic. Due to this size increase over time, Megalosauridae appear to follow a size increase pattern similar to that of other giant sized theropods like Spinosauridae. This pattern follows Cope’s Rule, the postulation by paleontologist Edward Cope about evolutionary increase in body size.

One unambiguous synapomorphy of Megalosauridae is a lower and longer skull with a length to height ratio of 3:1. In addition, the typical skull roof tends to be much less ornamented than that of other tetanurans, and crests or horns are either very small or absent entirely. Megalosauridae skulls also have femoral heads with an orientation 45 degrees between anteromedial and fully medial.

Megalosauridae are also defined by the following anatomical characteristics:

Dental findings are frequently used to differentiate between various theropods and to further inform cladistic phylogeny. Tooth morphology and dental evolutionary markers are prone to homoplasy and disappear or reappear throughout history. However, megalosaurids have several specific denture conditions that differentiate them from other basal theropods. One dental condition present in Megalosauridae is multiple enamel wrinkles near the carinae, the sharp edge or serration row of the tooth. Ornamented teeth and a well-marked enamel surface also characterize basal megalosaurids. The ornamentation and well-marked surface appears in early megalosaurids but disappears in derived megalosaurids, suggesting that the condition was lost over time as megalosaurids grew in size.

The 2012 discovery of a juvenile megalosaurid Scuirumimus albersodoerferi in Bavarian Germany has allowed for further characterization of this family. The skeleton showed evidence of strong, robust forelimbs and a three-digit claw. Fossils from the claw show metacarpal I as less than half the length of metacarpal II, and metacarpal III as shorter and more slender than metacarpal II. In addition, this skeleton shows evidence of protofeathers with monofilaments, suggesting that megalosaurids may have had feathers.

Megalosauridae was first phylogenetically defined in 1869 by Thomas Huxley, yet was used as a ‘waste-basket’ clade for many years. In 2002, Ronan Allain redefined the clade after he discovered a complete megalosaurid skull in northwestern France of species Poekilopleuron. Using the characters described in this study, Allain defined Megalosauridae as dinosaurs including Poekilopleuron valesdunesis, now known as Dubreuillosaurus, Torvosaurus, Afrovenator, and all descendants of their common ancestor. Allain also defined two taxa within Megalosauridae: Torvosaurinae was defined as all Megalosauridae more closely related to Torvosaurus than to Poekilopleuron and Afrovenator, and Megalosaurinae was defined as all those that are more closely related to Poekilopleuron. Megalosauridae also falls under the basal clade Megalosauroidea, which also contains Spinosauridae. However, many taxa are still quite unstable and cannot be placed in one clade with absolute certainty. For example, Eustreptospondylus and Streptospondylus, while they are both defined as Megalosauridae, are often excluded to make more stable cladograms since they are not defined to a certain subgroup. The cladogram presented here follows Benson (2010) and Benson et al. (2010).

Eustreptospondylus

Magnosaurus

Streptospondylus

Duriavenator

Afrovenator

Dubreuillosaurus

Megalosaurus

Torvosaurus

Wiehenvenator

Then, in 2012, Carrano, Benson, and Sampson did a much larger analysis of tetanurans and defined Megalosauria more broadly as the clade containing Megalosaurus, Spinosaurus, and all its descendants. In other words, Megalosauria is the group that contains the two families Megalosauridae and close relative Spinosauridae. Within this new cladogram, Megalosauridae was given a new subfamily Afrovenatorinae, which included all megalosaurids more closely related to Afrovenator than Megalosaurus.

Carrano, Benson, and Sampson also included various megalosaurids that had previously been excluded from cladograms in their 2012 study, such as Duriavenator and Wiehenvenator in Megalosaurinae and Magnosaurus, Leshansaurus, and Piveteausaurus in Afrovenatorinae.

Piatnitzkysauridae

Streptospondylus

Spinosauridae

Eustreptospondylus

Duriavenator

Megalosaurus

Torvosaurus

Wiehenvenator

Afrovenator

Dubreuillosaurus

Magnosaurus

Leshansaurus

Piveteausaurus

Species included in Megalosauridae have been found on every modern continent, split relatively equally between sites on the Gondwana and Laurasia supercontinents. Paleogeography findings show that Megalosauridae was mainly restricted to the Middle to Late Jurassic, suggesting they went extinct at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary 145 million years ago.

The global radiation of these carnivorous theropods occurred in two steps. First, radiation occurred during Pangaea breakup during the Early Jurassic, about 200 million years ago. When the Tethys Sea emerged between the supercontinent, spinosaurids radiated to the two halves of Pangaea. The second step of radiation occurred during the Middle and Late Jurassic, 174 to 145 million years ago, in allosaurids and coelosaurids. Megalosauridae appears to have gone extinct at the end of this time period, with Afrovenator left as the only survivor.

Megalosaurid remains have been found in various areas of the world throughout history. For example, Megalosauridae contains the most primitive theropod embryo ever found, from Early Tithonian Portugal 152 million years ago (mya). In addition, various megalosaurid fossil discoveries have been dated to Bajocian-Callovian England and France 168 to 163 mya, Middle Jurassic Africa about 170 mya, Late Jurassic China 163 to 145 mya, and Tithonian North America about 150 mya uk football shirts. Most recently, megalosaurids have been found in the Tiourarén Formation in Niger, proving again that these basal tetanurans have experienced global radiation.

From the family’s inception, many specimens found in the field have been wrongly classified as megalosaurids. For example, most large carnivores found for about a century after the naming of Megalosaurus bucklandii were placed in Megalosauridae. Megalosaurus bucklandii was the first paleontological finding of its kind when William Buckland discovered a giant femur and named it in 1824, predating even the term Dinosauria. When initially defined, the species Megalosaurus bucklandii was anatomically based on various dissociated bones found in quarries around the village of Stonesfield, UK. Some of these early findings included a right dentary with a well-preserved tooth meat tenderiser ingredients, ribs, pelvic bones, and sacral vertebrae. As early paleontologists and researchers found more dinosaur bones in the surrounding area, they attributed them all to Megalosaurus bucklandii since it was the only named and described dinosaur at this point in history. Therefore, the species was initially described and classified by a mass of possibly unrelated characteristics.

Modern paleontology first began to approach the problematic cladistic separation of Megalosauridae during the early 20th century. Fredrich von Huene separated carnivorous theropods, which had all been grouped into the broad category of megalosaurids, into two distinct families of larger, more giant sized and smaller, more lightly built theropods. These two groups were named Coelurosauria and Pachypodosauria respectively. Later on, Huene distinguished between carnivorous and herbivorous dinosaurs in Pachypodosauria best football shirts, placing the meat-eaters in a new group Carnosauria.

As more information was uncovered about basal theropods and phylogenetic characteristics, modern paleontologists began to question the proper naming for this group. In 2005 paleontologist Paul Sereno rejected the use of the clade Megalosauridae due to its ambiguous early history in favor of the name Torvosauridae. Today, it is accepted that megalosaurids existed at least as a group of basal tetanurans, due to the fact that they have more derived taxa than ceratosaurs and that the name Megalosauridae should represent this group. Megalosauridae also has priority over Torvosauridae under ICZN rules governing family names.

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Jonathan Sackner Bernstein

Jonathan Sackner Bernstein (born 27 January 1961) is an American physician, researcher brite electric shaver, and administrator. He has published more than 80 scientific articles, which have been cited more than 4,000 times… His research has ranged from cardiac care to the efficacy of drugs. His research led to increased scrutiny of Nesiritide, a widely marketed drug, which led to its decline in the marketplace.

Sackner Bernstein graduated from the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering in 1983 (BSEE), where he was president of Eta Kappa Nu handphone waterproof case, the electrical engineering honor society. He completed his MD from Jefferson Medical College, during which he moonlit writing code lemon squeezing machine. He completed a residency in internal medicine and subsequently cardiology at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. In addition, Sackner Bernstein completed a research fellowship in heart failure under Milton Packer, MD at Mount Sinai.

Bernstein joined the Columbia University faculty in 1993 in the Division of Circulatory Physiology, where he established its clinical research program. As a clinical investigator, he accumulated a large experience with the beta-blocker carvedilol prior to the application by its developer (GlaxoSmithKline) to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Bernstein’s most cited research focused on whether the newly marketed heart failure drug nesiritide (hr-BNP, Natrecor) was safe and effective, with a call for large-scale clinical trials prior to widespread use. While nesiritide was projected to generate $1 billion in sales in 2006, these studies triggered controversy that eventually led to markedly lower use by physicians.

Other frequently cited articles include work on Carvedilol and cardiac hypertrophy.

He is also the author of a book on heart disease, Before It Happens To You.

Bernstein joined the FDA in 2008 as Associate Center Director, leading Post Market Operations as well as Technology and Innovation programs.

He also helped establish a formal relationship between FDA and DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), then serving as architect for the initial White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) sponsored Entrepreneurs-in-Residence Program.

Sackner Bernstein launched SRD Med, LLC in 2015.

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Leopard’s Kopje

Leopard’s Kopje is an archaeological site, the type site of the associated region or culture that marked the Middle Iron Age. The ceramics from the Leopard’s Kopje type site have been classified as part of phase II of the Leopard’s Kopje culture. For information on the region of Leopard’s Kopje, see the “Associated sites” section of this article.

The site is located 2 kilometers north-east of the Khami World Heritage Site and 24 kilometers west of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Bordered by small hills jerseys stores, or koppies, on two sides and sharp ravines on the other two sides. The site is relatively small, measuring 150 by 200 yards in area.

K. R. Robinson conducted several excavations in the area, beginning in 1961. Thomas Huffman, who first excavated Leopard’s Kopje in August 1969, is also an important archaeologist of the site. Huffman’s excavations found three different phases of occupation, Zhizo, Mambo, and Refuge.

The occupation from the 18/19th centuries is called the Refuge phase. Because it was the latest phase of occupation at the Leopard’s Kopje site, its stratigraphy is closest to the surface and was therefore excavated first. Below a thin humus layer was a large ashy layer, in which artifacts such as zebra teeth, freshwater mussel shells, and turtle shells were found. Pottery sherds were found in middens and among stone structures. At least one known burial was found at this level.

In the original excavation by Huffman, several structures were found at the Mambo phase level, dating to the 10/11th centuries

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. Artifacts such as figurines and cattle teeth were discovered in multiple trenches. Evidence of an infant burial was also found. Several hut floors and plastered courtyards were uncovered, giving archaeologists a sense of the layout of the settlement youth football jerseys wholesale.

The stratigraphy shows that the earliest settlement is from the 9th century AD, now called the Zhizo phase. Possible traces of manure indicate that people kept goats or sheep. Along with large amounts of Zhizo pottery, artifacts such as glass and shell beads, copper bangles, daga rubble, and iron slag were excavated by Huffman and his team. “Zhizo” is also a term used for the cultural phase that preceded the Leopard’s Kopje cultural phase.

There is strong archaeological evidence that people at Leopard’s Kopje kept cattle. Vitrified and angular blocks of dung mark the perimeters of ancient cattle byres. These kraals were located at the center of villages, rather than to the edge of a settlement, meaning cattle would have been a central and important part of daily life. Huffman discovered a large white zone in the stratigraphy of the Mambo phase level that is believed to be cattle manure. Cattle teeth have also been excavated. The introduction of larger cattle herds at Leopard’s Kopje around the 10th century are seen as evidence of increased cultural complexity. This is thought to have resulted from a developing gold trade.

Archaeobotanical evidence offers insight into the diet of the occupants at Leopard’s Kopje. In 1969, Huffman and his team found seeds from finger millet, ground beans, sorghum, cowpeas, and wild plants at the Mambo phase level. The Leopard’s Kopje diet would also have consisted of the livestock they kept, including cattle, goat, and sheep papain tenderizer.

Huffman’s excavations found glass and shell beads at the Zhizo phase level, dating back to the 9th century. Some clay beads were also discovered at the Mambo phase level. Robinson’s 1961 excavation found just two glass beads. Both were cylindrical and blue-green in color, typical of phase II of the Leopard’s Kopje culture.

Strong evidence of iron smelting has been found at the Mambo phase level, and bits of iron slag have been found at the Zhizo phase level, suggesting that iron smelting existed at Leopard’s Kopje as early as the 9th century.

Excavations of Leopard’s Kopje have primarily focused on ceramic analysis. The middle Iron Age brought about a shift from communal ownership of pottery to private ownership. Leopard’s Kopje ceramic style is known for being multidimensional, with incised and excised bands. Shallow bowls and plates, jars with triangles, and beakers with high burnished necks are also typical. In Robinson’s 1961 excavation alone, 182 pottery fragments were uncovered. The most common vessel found was a shouldered pot with a concave neck and either an incised ladder pattern or a chevron pattern. These motifs were created with incisions or stabs, rather than comb-stamping. Few of the burnished beakers and bowls found were decorated.

Settlements throughout the larger Leopard’s Kopje region feature stone buildings. The prevalence of these stone structures is the inspiration behind the name “Zimbabwe,” which means “houses of stone.” Evidence of stone buildings were found by Huffman at the Refuge phase level. The evolution from earthen houses to stone buildings is an indication of social changes, much like the introduction of larger cattle herds.

The area associated with the Leopard’s Kopje region stretches from just south of Belingwe, Zimbabwe, down to the Limpopo River. Archaeological sites in the region date to between 950-1100 AD. The six type sites that have been selected as most representative of the Leopard’s Kopje culture are Zhizo Hill, York Ranch, Leopard’s Kopje, Taba Zikamambo, Woolandale Estate Midden Mounds, and Enyandeni Farm. Other notable associated sites include Mapela Hill, K2, Khami, Mapungubwe, and Bambandyanalo.

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